I don't have any evidence that I can share however I have students keep a full (electronic) log of their testing and debugging. I agree with some of the other comments that this is not a standalone process.
Change (Code) A Little – Test – Debug – Repeat
Students need to record what part they were testing, who tested it, screen shot the error/issue and record how it was resolved.
For my advanced student I have them log all activities so they can see how and where it has gone wrong.
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